1. Permanent Court of Arbitration
2517 KJ The Hague
T:+31 70 302 4165
F:+31 70 302 4167
The PCA is an intergovernmental organization with 116 member states. Established in 1899 to facilitate arbitration and other forms of dispute resolution between states, the PCA has developed into a modern, multi-faceted arbitral institution that is now perfectly situated at the juncture between public and private international law to meet the rapidly evolving dispute resolution needs of the international community. Today the PCA provides services for the resolution of disputes involving various combinations of states, state entities, intergovernmental organizations, and private parties.
The PCA’s Secretariat, the International Bureau, headed by its Secretary-General, provides full registry services and legal and administrative support to tribunals and commissions. Its caseload reflects the breadth of PCA involvement in international dispute resolution, encompassing territorial, treaty, and human rights disputes between states, as well as commercial and investment disputes, including disputes arising under bilateral and multilateral investment treaties.
The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provides for arbitration as the default dispute settlement mechanism.
The Court has had its seat in the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands) since 1946. Its predecessor, the Permanent Court of International Justice, occupied from 1922 the same premises, made available to it by the Carnegie Foundation, which owns and administers the Peace Palace.
Built between 1907 and 1913 for the Permanent Court of Arbitration thanks to a donation from Andrew Carnegie, a Scottish-born industrialist who made his fortune in the United States, the Peace Palace is situated in seven hectares of parkland in the heart of the city.
The granite, sandstone and red brick building designed by the French architect Louis Cordonnier and topped by an imposing roof of greyish slate is in a predominantly neo-renaissance style. The facade, overlooking the lawns, features a series of figures that evoke justice and peace. On the left, the clock tower with its chimes rises to a height of 80 metres. Inside, woodwork, stained-glass windows, mosaics, tapestries and art objects presented by the States which participated in the Hague Peace Conferences reflect the diversity of the world’s cultures.
A new wing built in 1978 behind the Palace accommodates the Court’s Deliberation Room and the offices of its Members. It was extended in 1997, notably to house the increased number of judges ad hoc. That same year, the attic of the Palace was renovated to provide new offices for Registry staff.
The Palace, which, along with the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice, is home to one of the world’s largest libraries of public international law (the Peace Palace Library, which is public, unlike the Court’s library) and hosts the summer courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, can be visited on working days.
A museum of the history and work of the institutions housed in the Peace Palace was inaugurated in May 1999 by Mr. Kofi Annan and Judge Stephen M. Schwebel, respectively United Nations Secretary-General and President of the Court at that time. It is situated in the southern wing of the building.
As an integrated supervisory institution, the FMA, which was founded in 2002, brings together responsibility for supervising all significant providers and functions under one roof. The authority supervises banks, insurance undertakings, Pensionskassen (pension companies), corporate provision funds, investment firms and investment service providers, investment funds, financial conglomerates and exchange operating companies. It also monitors activities to ensure that trading in listed securities complies with legal requirements and the principles of fairness and transparency (supervision of the market and stock exchange). It ensures that prospectuses concerned with the public sale of securities appropriately explain the opportunities and risks of investment to the general public (prospectus supervision).
4.EU – Exercise your rights
EU law – which has equal force with national law – confers rights and obligations on the authorities in each Member State, as well as individuals and businesses. The authorities in each Member State are responsible for implementing EU legislation in national law and enforcing it correctly, and they must guarantee citizens’ rights under these laws. Anyone may lodge a complaint with the Commission against a Member State for any measure (law, regulation or administrative action) or practice attributable to a Member State which they consider incompatible with a provision or a principle of EU law.
You do not have to demonstrate a formal interest in bringing proceedings. Neither do you have to prove that you are principally and directly concerned by the infringement complained about. To be admissible, a complaint has to relate to an infringement of EU law by a Member State. It cannot therefore concern a private dispute.
The Commission will handle your complaint in line with the administrative measures defined in the Communication from the Commission on updating the handling of relations with the complainant in respect of the application of Union law KOMUNIKACIJA KOMISIJE VIJEĆU I EUROPSKOM PARLAMENTU [COM(2012) 154 final].
If you feel that in the handling of your complaint, the Commission has not followed these rules appropriately you may contact the European Ombudsman under Articles 24 and 228 of the TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union).
1. Methods of submitting a complaint
2. Stages of infringement proceedings
3. National means of redress
4. Administrative guarantees
5. Protection of the complainant and personal data>
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